18 July 2018
CHALLENGES ON CATFISH FARMING IN INDONESIA
Food is one of the basic needs of every human being. Fulfillment of food needs becomes very important to achieve food security. If food needs are not met, then the balance will be shaken resulting in food vulnerability. The history notes that food becomes one of the triggers of conflict or hostility. Therefore, the fulfillment of the need for food is a necessity in building a civilization.
Currently, the number of people in the world is increasing continuously. This also happens in Indonesia, even the population in Indonesia is one of the largest population in the world, with approximately 250 million people. On the other hand, the constriction of forests, land for food production including fisheries, agriculture and livestock is getting worse which is inversely proportional to the increasing number of people in Indonesia. Consequently, food production in Indonesia is increasingly reduced and will affect the fulfillment of national food needs.
The impact of the food shortage is affecting some people in Indonesia who suffer from malnutrition. This can inhibit growth and cause some diseases, especially malnutrition. This is an ironic occurrence since Indonesia is an archipelagic country with abundant natural resources which is called gemah ripah loh jinawi.
Fulfilling the needs for foods or more precisely maintaining food security must be done in a balance manner, especially in terms of nutrition and nutrition. One important factor in maintaining the balance of nutrients is the components of food ingredients, such as protein, amino acids, fat or fatty acids. One of sources and food ingredients is fish. Fish is a food rich in nutrients including proteins (amino acids) and fats (especially omega-3 fatty acids, EPA or DHA).
Of course, taking fishes as food sources is very good for humans. But for the majority of the population who are still classified as lower-middle, the price of fish becomes a very important consideration. Therefore, catfish becomes one of the ingredients of fish that is suitable and appropriate for Indonesian people. Catfish is a populist food, where almost every layer of society loves it and becomes a favorite on the plate.
Then what makes catfish economical food? Is it because catfish is a fish with low nutrition? No! Or,becauseof the catfish have bad taste? No! Some studies have reported that catfish meat has quite high nutrients containing protein about 15-20%. Omega-3 is of fatty acids needed for development and maintenance of health. The finings in the field shows that people are do not like catfish just because of its shape and habitat. This usually happens because they remember the catfish farming in ancient times where the catfish is mostly found in the environment of disgusting waters. That is in contrast to this time where the way of catfish cultivation in Indonesia has been very advanced. The sale of catfish has pushed its production nationwide to reach 873,716 tons in 2016.
The data shows that Indonesia is the country with the largest catfish production. Even in some cases it was reported that thousands of catfish spilled on Jakarta toll road. In the rainy season, when the flood occurs, the presence of catfish is so fascinating to be caught and lured by citizens.
With the spirit of developing and strengthening national food security, the government, in this case the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KKP), builds Indonesia from the edge or border with catfish farming. Why they choose catfish? Because catfish promises to the people on the border, according to its nickname: "The Populist Food". The initiation of border development with the cultivation of catfish is a form of government's long efforts in order to realize food security and ultimately to achieve food sovereignty.
Cultivation of catfish in Indonesia that requires their own creativity and innovation has a long story, ranging from the circulation of the names of types of catfish such as Dumbo, Sangkuriang, Masamo, and Mutiara. While from the side of the cultivation system, it was ranging from traditional cultivation system, semi-flok, biofloc, water, to aquaponic. However, has the cultivation of catfish in Indonesia reached its optimum point yet? Of course it hasn't. There is no word 'finish' until doomsday comes. Why? Because the challenges facing catfish cultivation in Indonesia become more difficult as time goes by. The following are the challenges that arise and should be resolved, such as:
1. Selection of catfish seeds and parents
Seeds and mothers are like two sides of the coin that can not be separated, meaning if the quality of the parents is weak or they are sick, then the resulting seeds will be weak and susceptible to disease. Therefore, parents and seeds become the main keys in conducting catfish cultivation. A common case in the community is that there is no change of catfish once every 2 years. The reason is Unit Pembenihan Rakyat/Public Hatchery Unit (UPR) does not have ability to replace the parents. Cultivators only spawnold parents in which the marriage will cause a backcross (crossbreeding), so that the quality of catfish becomes relatively decreased.
In addition, many hatcheries that flourish in the community have not fully implemented CPIB (The Way of a Good Fish Hatchery). In the application of CPIB there are 4 aspects to be considered are technical, management, food safety, and environmental aspects.
2. Process of catfish enlargement
If the parents and catfish have good quality and can their types can be traced, then the next step is how to do the process of catfish enlargement to the size of consumption which is ranging from 8-10 in where 1 kg of catfish contains 8-10 tail. In the process of enlarging catfish, according to the direction of the government, fish farmers need to apply the concept of CBIB or The Way of a Good Fish Hatchery. CBIB is a concept of how to keep fish, so that the fish maintained will have a good quality so as to improve the competitiveness of products that are free of chemical and biological contamination and safe for consumption. In addition, the CBIB concept also helps us in the process of maintenance of fish to be more effective and efficient, minimizing the risk of failure, increasing customer trust, guaranteeing export opportunities, and being environmentally friendly. This is in accordance with the Decree of the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Number 02/MEN/2007.
Similar to the application of CPIB, in the application of CBIB there are 4 factors to be considered are technical, management, food safety, and environmental aspects. Technical aspect includes the feasibility of location and water sources, feasibility of facilities, production process and application of biosecurity. The application of biosecurity is an attempt to prevent cultivation areas from harmful substances or organisms that can interfere with the maintenance process. Management aspect includes organizational structure and management as well as data processing for documentation and recording. The food safety aspect is a requirement that fish farming should not use prohibited chemical/biological drugs which can cause residues including antibiotics. The environmental aspect is a guarantee that our fish farming activities do not pollute the environment. This can be done by depositing waste water from our fish cultivation process in a tub before being discharged into public waters.
3. Need for Feed
Feed is nutrients for fish growth, which commonly contain protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrates, and ash (minerals). A good feed for development and growth of catfish become the main key in doing catfish enlargement business. Feed generally obtained from manufacturers because the formulation is produced in accordance with the needs of catfish. In contrast, some fish farmers use natural feed or mix their own feed with trash fish (as raw material) or feed with low protein that is processed again by doing fermentation. In fact, there are some catfish farmers who use chicken carcasses or waste remnants of chicken manures as feed, given the operational costs of feed use is very high. But it has a negative impact and make the image of catfish become a poor food product.
Therefore, the recommended feed is in the form of pellet produced by compatible feed manufacturerswhich are already experienced in feed industry, one of which is PT. Matahari Sakti or better known as MS. MS produces catfish feed with its flagship brand, LP, from Prima Feed brand. The feed has been tested on the market, and even become a favorite of catfish farmers in Indonesia. The results of the company survey reported that the most favored catfish catfish farmers are LP. This proves that LP feed is very supportive of catfish productivity, and also environmentally friendly, so that the use of LP is in accordance with CBIB standards.
4. Markeiting aspect
One thing that spearheads the effort of hatchery and enlargement of catfish is marketing aspect. Marketing greatly determines the price and the bargaining value of catfish in the community. The most important is how it can determine the income for catfish farmers, so that the welfare of catfish farmers can be achieved. But in fact, the price of catfish does not go up even though the quality of catfish produced by catfish farmers is very good. Generally the price of catfish purchased in the cultivation location is only around Rp 14,000 to Rp 18,000 per kilogram. In contrast, the price used by middlemen or catfish traders to sell it on the market reaches Rp 24,000 to Rp 28,000 per kilogram. It appears that the difference is quite high. It should be noted that the operational cost of catfish breeding can reach 80-90%, while the profit is 10-20% only.
For that, good market management by the government to boost the selling price of catfish is needed. The existence of government intervention in making the basic price policy of catfish sale is expected to increase the passion of catfish farmers in Indonesia.
The explanation provides an overview of how to face the challenges in increasing national food production through the cultivation of catfish in Indonesia, which is currently the flagship of government programs in maintaining the fulfillment of community nutrition, especially the development of border areas through catfish farming program. So that food security and food security or even food sovereignty can be achieved well.